13.ThreadPoolExecutor线程池之submit方法

jdk1.7.0_79 

  在上一篇《ThreadPoolExecutor线程池原理及其execute方法》中提到了线程池ThreadPoolExecutor的原理以及它的execute方法。本文解析ThreadPoolExecutor#submit。

  对于一个任务的执行有时我们不需要它返回结果,但是有我们需要它的返回执行结果。对于线程来讲,如果不需要它返回结果则实现Runnable,而如果需要执行结果的话则可以实现Callable。在线程池同样execute提供一个不需要返回结果的任务执行,而对于需要结果返回的则可调用其submit方法。

  回顾ThreadPoolExecutor的继承关系。

  

  在Executor接口中只定义了execute方法,而submit方法则是在ExecutorService接口中定义的。

  

//ExecutorService
public interface ExecutorService extends Executor {
  ...
  <T> Future<T> submit(Callable<T> task);
  <T> Future<T> submit(Runnable task, T result);
  <T> Future<T> submit(Runnable task);
  ...
}

  而在其子类AbstractExecutorService实现了submit方法。

//AbstractExecutorService
public abstract class AbstractExecutorService implements ExecutorService {
  ...
  public <T> Future<T> submit(Callable<T> task) {
    if (task == null) throw new NullPointerException();
    RunnableFuture<T> ftask = newTaskFor(task);
    execute(ftask);
    return ftask;
  }
  public <T> Future<T> submit(Runnable task, T result) {
    if (task == null) throw new NullPointerException();
    RunnableFuture<T> ftask = newTaskFor(task);
    execute(ftask);
    return ftask;
  }
  public Future<?> submit(Runnable task) {
    if (task == null) throw new NullPointerExeption();
    RunnableFuture<Void> ftask = newTaskFor(task, null);
    execute(ftask);
    return ftask; 
  }
  ...
}

  在AbstractExecutorService实现的submit方法实际上是一个模板方法,定义了submit方法的算法骨架,其execute交给了子类。(可以看到在很多源码中,模板方法模式被大量运用,有关模板方法模式可参考《模板方法模式》

  尽管submit方法能提供线程执行的返回值,但只有实现了Callable才会有返回值,而实现Runnable的线程则是没有返回值的,也就是说在上面的3个方法中,submit(Callable<T> task)能获取到它的返回值,submit(Runnable task, T result)能通过传入的载体result间接获得线程的返回值或者准确来说交给线程处理一下,而最后一个方法submit(Runnable task)则是没有返回值的,就算获取它的返回值也是null。

  下面给出3个例子,来感受下submit方法。

  submit(Callable<T> task)

package com.threadpoolexecutor;

import java.util.concurrent.*;

/**
 * ThreadPoolExecutor#sumit(Callable<T> task)
 * Created by yulinfeng on 6/17/17.
 */
public class Sumit1 {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws ExecutionException, InterruptedException {
        Callable<String> callable = new Callable<String>() {
            public String call() throws Exception {
                System.out.println("This is ThreadPoolExetor#submit(Callable<T> task) method.");
                return "result";
            }
        };

        ExecutorService executor = Executors.newSingleThreadExecutor();
        Future<String> future = executor.submit(callable);
        System.out.println(future.get());
    }
}

  submit(Runnable task, T result)

package com.threadpoolexecutor;

import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;
import java.util.concurrent.Future;

/**
 * ThreadPoolExecutor#submit(Runnable task, T result)
 * Created by yulinfeng on 6/17/17.
 */
public class Submit2 {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws ExecutionException, InterruptedException {

        ExecutorService executor = Executors.newSingleThreadExecutor();
        Data data = new Data();
        Future<Data> future = executor.submit(new Task(data), data);
        System.out.println(future.get().getName());
    }
}

class Data {
    String name;

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }
}

class Task implements Runnable {
    Data data;

    public Task(Data data) {
        this.data = data;
    }
    public void run() {
        System.out.println("This is ThreadPoolExetor#submit(Runnable task, T result) method.");
        data.setName("kevin");
    }
}

  submit(Runnable task)

package com.threadpoolexecutor;

import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;
import java.util.concurrent.Future;

/**
 * ThreadPoolExecutor#sumit(Runnable runnables)
 * Created by yulinfeng on 6/17/17.
 */
public class Submit {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws ExecutionException, InterruptedException {
        Runnable runnable = new Runnable() {
            public void run() {
                System.out.println("This is ThreadPoolExetor#submit(Runnable runnable) method.");
            }
        };

        ExecutorService executor = Executors.newSingleThreadExecutor();
        Future future = executor.submit(runnable);
        System.out.println(future.get());
    }
}

  通过上面的实例可以看到在调用submit(Runnable runnable)的时候是不需要其定义类型的,也就是说虽然在ExecutorService中对其定义的是泛型方法,而在AbstractExecutorService中则不是泛型方法,因为它没有返回值。(有关Object、T、?这三者的区别,可参考《Java中的Object、T(泛型)、?区别》)。

  从上面的源码可以看到,这三者方法几乎是一样的,关键就在于:

RunnableFuture<T> ftask = newTaskFor(task);
execute(ftask);

  它是如何将一个任务作为参数传递给了newTaskFor,然后调用execute方法,最后进而返回ftask的呢?

//AbstractExecutorService#newTaskFor
protected <T> RunnableFuture<T> newTaskFor(Callable<T> callable) {
  return new FutureTask<T>(callable);
}
  protected <T> RunnableFuture<T> newTaskFor(Runnable runnable, T value) {
  return new FutureTask<T>(runnable, value);
} 

  看来是返回了一个FutureTask实例,FutureTask实现了Future和Runnable接口。Future接口是Java线程Future模式的实现,可用用来异步计算,实现Runnable接口表示可以作为一个线程执行。FutureTask实现了这两个接口意味着它代表异步计算的结果,同时可以作为一个线程交给Executor来执行。有关FutureTask放到下章来单独解析。所以本文对于线程池ThreadPoolExecutor线程池的submit方法解析并不完整,必须得了解Java线程的Future模式——《14.Java中的Future模式》

posted @ 2017-06-17 13:05 余林丰 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏